A bone fracture occurs when a bone either cracks or breaks in two. Another term for fracture is broken bone, though this is not used commonly among doctors and other medical workers.
Some types of knee fractures include:
- Patellar — fracture of the kneecap, which is the “knobby” part of the knee
- Thighbone (Distal Femur) — fracture of the bone above the knee that connects your leg to the rest of your body
- Shinbone (Proximal Tibia) — fracture of the forward facing bone of the lower half of your knee
When a joint is no longer attached at its normal position, it is dislocated. When talking about dislocations related to the knee, there are two major types:
- Posterior — Dislocation that happens by applying force towards the tibia (the forward facing bone of the bottom portion of the knee). The force moves the joint to the posterior of the body.
- Anterior — Dislocation that occurs when the knee is severely hyperextended, moving the joint to the anterior of the body.
There are also the less common medial, rotatory, and lateral dislocations which move the knee in a variety of other directions.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (runner’s knee) is the result of degradation of the cartilage that separates the kneecap from the knees. The eroding cartilage leads to pain that can worsen when a person overexerts, which causes severe pressure on their knees.
Activities such as running, bending, or even sitting down for a long period can lead to painful bouts of runner’s knee.
A sprain happens when a ligament is torn or stretched too far. A sprain can often result in swelling and pain.
There are many different types of sprains. However, there are three major grades of sprain that happen the most:
- Grade 1 — slight tearing or stretching with a small amount of pain
- Grade 2 — a larger tear with a moderate amount of pain
- Grade 3 — a total tear of the ligaments, which can make muscles feel unsettled
Some common sprains that may happen include:
The anterior crucial ligament (ACL) runs from the bottom half of the leg to the top. The ACL is a small ligament housed behind the kneecap which stabilizes the knee. When the ACL is torn, stability in the knee is greatly affected, causing a lot of pain.
The posterior crucial ligament (PCL) runs from the thigh bone to the shin bone and connects them. The PCL is stronger than the ACL but can still tear.
A meniscus is a small, soft disc that protects the knee. There are two menisci on the inner and outer parts of each knee. If violent movement happens with the knee, the meniscus can tear and sprain, causing pain and swelling.
A tendon is a ligament that attaches muscle to bone. Tendon tears can result from repeated movements that wear down the connection over time. These tears can lead to tendinosis and tendonitis.
Collateral Ligament Injury
The collateral ligaments are located on the sides of your knee, connecting the femur to both the tibia and the fibula. These ligaments, known as the medial collateral (MCL) and the lateral collateral (LCL) ligaments can be sprained by forcing the ligaments sideways.
When a bursa (a sac that protects your bones, joints, and tendons with fluid) becomes inflamed, it is known as bursitis. Bursitis in the knees can hinder movement and cause difficulty when walking.
A knee strain occurs when a muscle is either torn or stretched beyond capacity. The causes for strains are similar to sprains, as are the treatments.
Have a Knee Injury?
Biomotion Physical Therapy can help you recover. We treat many knee injuries using non-invasive techniques that cater to your needs. If you live in Schertz, TX, contact us today to schedule an appointment.